The Buxbaumiaceae are monogeneric, with Buxbaumia including about 10 species distributed mostly in temperate regions. One endemic and one apparently bipolar species are known from N.Z. The capsules are extremely large (up to 9 mm in one species) and persist for more than one year. Despite their large size, they are remarkably difficult to see in the field and may not even be recognised as belonging to a moss. The capsules are almost certainly sometimes overlooked by even skilled collectors. Non-fruiting material is rarely, if ever, collected. The vegetative leaves of all species are minute and probably contribute little to the nutrition of the developing sporophyte.
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